Conflict Management Theory: Traditional Approaches, Theories, Principles and Practices

Have you ever found yourself in the middle of a workplace disagreement wondering how it could be resolved smoothly?

You’re not alone. A staggering 85% of employees at all levels experience conflict to some degree, according to a study by CPP Inc.

It is an intrinsic part of our interactions that, when managed effectively, can lead to breakthrough innovations and deepened relationships.

Joseph Nye, a renowned American political scientist, emphasises the significance of handling these situations adeptly: “Leadership,” he notes, “is the ability to reconcile conflict.”

This insight highlights the critical role that effective conflict resolution plays in guiding teams and organisations towards success.

It is crucial to reconsider the traditional view that conflicts inevitably lead to negative aspects. 

Within the realm of organizational conflict management theory, adopting a responsible approach involves understanding factors such as anger management and critical thinking.

This promotes a healthy perspective on conflict resolution, emphasizing positive outcomes and minimizing blame and destructive mistakes.

Recognizing the other person’s concerns and the issues that gave rise to the conflict helps in addressing the person’s concerns effectively and constructively.

In this blog, we delve into crucial conflict management theories that equip you with diverse strategies for handling organisational conflicts effectively.

The Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument (TKI) offers a unique lens through which we can understand and resolve conflicts.

Join us as we explore how this theory can be applied in practical scenarios to resolve disputes and harness conflict’s creative potential, leading to improved outcomes and stronger relationships.

Whether you’re a team leader, HR professional, or anyone who regularly navigates interpersonal dynamics, this guide will help you build a robust toolkit for managing conflicts constructively.

Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument (TKI)

The Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument (TKI) is an essential tool for understanding how different types of conflict-handling styles affect interpersonal and group dynamics.

Developed by psychologists Kenneth Thomas and Ralph Kilmann in the 1970s, the TKI categorises five styles of conflict based on levels of assertiveness and cooperativeness.

Each style represents a unique way to handle disputes, and understanding these can help anyone navigate conflicts more effectively.

Thomas Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument

1. Competing

The Competing style, as defined by the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument (TKI), is highly assertive and minimally cooperative.

This approach is about asserting one’s viewpoint at the potential expense of another party’s interests.

It’s characterised by a strong focus on achieving one’s goals and objectives, often leading to a “win-lose” situation where one party wins at the other’s expense.

Competing is most effective when quick, decisive action is needed or when making unpopular decisions that are crucial for the organization’s overall success or safety.

It is also appropriate when defending against someone who is taking advantage of non-competitive behavior.

Being aware of when to adopt this style is key, especially in situations where others might become angry or resistant.

Organizations must recognize the contexts in which competing can be beneficial and ensure it aligns with the organization’s strategic goals.

  • Crisis Management: In emergencies where immediate decisions are necessary, the competing style ensures that actions are taken swiftly without prolonged debate.

  • Upholding Principles or Laws: When legal or ethical standards are at stake, competing helps to enforce these non-negotiable standards against any opposition.

Examples in the Workplace

  • Emergency Decisions: A manufacturing plant manager faces an immediate safety risk due to equipment failure. Using the competing style, the manager decides to shut down production immediately to address the hazard, despite pushback from the operations team concerned about meeting production targets.

  • Enforcing Policies: An HR manager enforces a new company policy requiring thorough background checks for all new hires despite resistance from department heads who feel it slows down the hiring process.

Advantages Of Competing

  • Directness and Simplicity: Competing cuts through the complexities and ambiguities often accompanying group decision-making processes. It offers a straightforward path to a resolution when the situation demands a clear and uncompromising stance.

  • Leadership and Authority: Competing can establish and reinforce authority in critical situations, ensuring that leadership is respected and followed, particularly when swift compliance is necessary.

  • Clarity and Firmness: This style provides clear, decisive leadership beneficial in high-stakes or emergencies where ambiguity could be dangerous or counterproductive.

Disadvantages of Competing

  • Suppressing Innovation: Overusing the competing style can give rise to differing opinions and innovations from more collaborative approaches.

  • Short-term Focus: While effective for immediate resolution, competing often neglects the long-term implications of decisions, leading to recurring conflicts or deeper issues that are never fully addressed.

  • Risk of Escalation: Using a competing style can escalate conflicts, especially if the opposing party also responds competitively. This can lead to a standoff that can disrupt normal operations and require additional resources to resolve.

Strategic Tips for Competing

  • Know When to Use It: Only compete in situations where it is absolutely necessary to achieve the right outcome or uphold important values or laws.

  • Balance with Empathy: When using a competing style, balance it with moments of empathy where you acknowledge the concerns and frustrations of others, even if you cannot accommodate them.

  • Follow-Up: After employing a competing approach, engage in follow-up discussions to repair and rebuild relationships, ensuring that any feelings of resentment are addressed.

2. Collaborating

Collaborating in the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument (TKI) is both highly assertive and highly cooperative, aiming for a win-win scenario.

This approach encourages working jointly to develop solutions that fully satisfy everyone’s interests, merging the insights and viewpoints of all parties involved.

  • Long-term Project Planning: Ideal for projects where ongoing collaboration is essential. The collaborative approach ensures comprehensive planning and shared responsibility by engaging all stakeholders from the start.

  • Resolving Deep-Rooted Issues: This method is best used for complex issues involving multiple stakeholders, where understanding diverse perspectives is crucial for a thorough resolution.

  • Enhancing Team Cohesion: This technique is useful in situations requiring team building or in the aftermath of organisational turmoil, where restoring or enhancing trust and communication is critical.

Examples in the Workplace

  • Integrating Teams: In mergers, a collaborative approach can ease the integration of diverse corporate cultures, aligning different operational practices to form a cohesive entity.

  • Developing New Policies: Collaboratively designing a new workplace safety protocol can ensure that the guidelines are practical, comprehensive, and widely accepted by all employees.

  • Product Development: When creating a new product, bringing together cross-functional teams to contribute can lead to innovative features and designs that might not emerge from a single department.

Advantages of Collaborating

  • Enhanced Commitment: The involvement of all key stakeholders in the decision-making process fosters greater allegiance to the outcome, as participants are more likely to commit to decisions they helped shape.

  • Innovative Solutions: This style nurtures a creative environment by valuing diverse perspectives and expertise, often leading to breakthrough ideas and superior solutions.

  • Building Relationships: By valuing each participant’s input and fostering mutual respect, collaborating strengthens team dynamics and builds trust, which are critical for long-term organisational success.

Disadvantages of Collaborating

  • Time-Consuming: Reaching a consensus can require extensive discussions, multiple meetings, and considerable time, potentially delaying decision-making.

  • Complex Coordination: The logistical challenge of managing and harmonising varied inputs can be significant, requiring adept facilitation and sometimes leading to process inefficiencies.

  • Risk of Compromise on Key Issues: There is a potential pitfall of diluting the optimal solution to accommodate everyone’s preferences, which might result in a less effective outcome.

Strategic Tips for Collaborating

  • Prepare for In-depth Discussions: Allocate sufficient time and resources for thorough discussions. This might include setting up multiple sessions and using collaborative tools to capture and organise input.

  • Facilitate Open Communication: Create a supportive environment that encourages frank and open dialogue. Techniques such as active listening, rephrasing for clarity, and ensuring equal participation can be very effective.

  • Emphasise Mutual Benefits: Highlight the shared advantages of a collaborative outcome during discussions to keep the group focused on collective rather than individual gains.

3. Compromising

Compromising strikes a balance between assertiveness and cooperativeness.

It is a give-and-take approach where the parties involved agree to make concessions to arrive at a mutually acceptable solution.

This style is less about finding an ideal solution and more about finding a quick, practical resolution that all parties can live with, although it partially satisfies.

  • Time Constraints: This is ideal when decisions need to be made quickly and there isn’t enough time for a thorough collaborative process.

  • Equally Important Goals: Useful in situations where all conflicting parties have equally important goals, making it difficult to prioritise one set of objectives over another.

  • Temporary Solutions: Effective for finding interim solutions while longer-term solutions are being developed.

Examples in the Workplace

  • Resource Allocation: Two department heads agree to share access to a limited set of resources. They schedule usage times that slightly adjust to each other’s most critical operational hours.

  • Scheduling Conflicts: Team members agree to rotate meeting times to accommodate different time zones, ensuring everyone attends at least once, even if the timing isn’t ideal.

  • Budget Adjustments: During budget cuts, departments agree to a uniform percentage reduction rather than negotiating based on individual department needs to expedite the process and maintain fairness.

Advantages of Compromising

  • Quick Resolution: Often leads to faster solutions that are necessary when time is of the essence, preventing prolonged disruption.

  • Reduces Tension: By giving each party a stake in the outcome, compromising can reduce the tension and hostility that might escalate with more aggressive styles.

  • Maintains Relationships: Keeps relationships intact by ensuring no party feels completely overlooked, fostering a sense of fairness and teamwork.

Disadvantages of Compromising

  • No Perfect Solution: Rarely results in an ideal solution; instead, it may lead to a middle-ground solution that might not fully satisfy any party.

  • Overuse Can Lead to Mediocrity: Regular reliance on compromise can stifle innovation and prevent the pursuit of more ambitious solutions that require more risk but potentially offer greater rewards.

  • Potential for Resentment: If parties feel they are consistently forced to give up more than they want, it can lead to underlying resentment that may affect future interactions.

Strategic Tips for Compromising

  • Clearly Define What’s Negotiable: Before entering negotiations, clarify which aspects are flexible and which are non-negotiable, helping to streamline the process and set clear boundaries.

  • Aim for Fairness: Ensure that concessions are evenly distributed among parties, avoiding uneven sacrifices that could lead to dissatisfaction.

  • Use as a Stepping Stone: Treat compromising as a temporary solution while working toward a more permanent resolution that might involve more collaborative methods.

4. Accommodating

The Accommodating style is characterised by high cooperativeness and low assertiveness.

This style is adopted when one party is willing to put aside their own concerns in resolving conflict to satisfy the needs of the other party.

It’s typically used when the issue at hand is more important to the other person’s concern than to oneself, emphasising harmony and relationships over personal victory.

  • When the Issue Matters More to the Other Party: Effective when the conflict involves something that is significantly more important to the other person, allowing them to support their needs.

  • To Preserve or Build Relationships: Useful in situations where maintaining harmony and building goodwill are more crucial than the specific outcome of the conflict.

  • When You May Be Wrong: Appropriate to adopt when you realise you may be wrong, and accommodating the other perspective leads to a better solution.

Examples in the Workplace

  • Supporting Team Morale: A manager might let a team member lead a project even though they could do it themselves to boost the individual’s confidence and engagement.

  • Client Relations: A company may decide to accommodate a client’s request that goes beyond the usual scope of service to maintain a strong business relationship or to avoid conflict over small details that could sour a major contract.

  • Resolving Minor Disputes: An employee might step back from a disagreement about workspace arrangements to accommodate a colleague who feels strongly about the issue.

Advantages of Accommodating

  • Enhances Relationships: By showing a willingness to prioritise others’ needs, this style can strengthen bonds and increase goodwill among team members or between stakeholders.

  • Reduces Stress and Conflict: It often diffuses potential conflicts quickly, minimising stress and promoting a peaceful work environment.

  • Builds Social Capital: Regular use of accommodating can build a reputation for being reasonable and supportive, which might be beneficial in future interactions.

Disadvantages of Accommodating

  • May Encourage Taking For Granted: Others may come to expect compliance, potentially leading to a pattern where one’s own needs are consistently neglected.

  • Risk of Resentment: If used too frequently, it can lead to feelings of resentment if the accommodator feels that their generosity is not reciprocated or appreciated.

  • Potential for Undermining One’s Position: Frequent use of accommodating can be perceived as a lack of backbone, potentially undermining respect or authority in a professional setting.

Strategic Tips for Accommodating

  • Balance Use with Other Styles: Employ accommodating selectively and balance it with other styles to ensure your own needs are also being addressed.

  • Communicate Clearly: Make it clear that your choice to accommodate is deliberate, and explain why you’re choosing this approach to avoid misunderstandings about your motivations.

  • Monitor Outcomes: Keep track of the outcomes of accommodating decisions to ensure they’re producing the desired effects on relationships and not leading to an imbalance or resentment.


Through the application of TKI, individuals can develop a deeper awareness of their default conflict-handling styles and recognise when an alternate approach may be more appropriate.

This awareness fosters flexibility and adaptability in handling disputes, empowering users to manage conflicts more strategically.

Whether it’s taking a firm stand in a crisis, fostering collaboration to solve complex problems, finding quick compromises, withdrawing to de-escalate tension, or accommodating to preserve vital relationships, the TKI equips individuals with the knowledge to choose the most effective style based on the context and desired outcomes.

Ultimately, the TKI not only enhances individual conflict management skills but also contributes to building a more collaborative and resilient organisational culture.

Encouraging a balanced approach to conflict resolution helps create environments where diverse perspectives are respected and where constructive dialogue leads to innovative solutions and sustained progress.

The TKI is an invaluable resource for anyone looking to navigate the intricate dynamics of interpersonal and group conflicts with confidence and effectiveness.

Rishabh Bhandari

Rishabh Bhandari is the Content Strategist at Kapable. Rishabh likes to transform complex ideas into captivating narratives relatable to the target audience. He loves telling stories through his content. He believes that stories have the power to shift mindsets and move mountains. He has 3 years of experience in educational blog writing and copywriting.

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